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General properties of metals

04 Tháng 12, 2023

1. Position of metals in the periodic table
Chemical elements are classified into metals and nonmetals. Of the 110 known chemical elements, nearly 90 are metals. In the periodic table, metallic elements are present in:
- Groups IA (except hydrogen) and IIA.
- Group IIIA (except boron) and parts of groups IVA, VA, VIA.
 Groups B (from IB to VIIIB).
- The lanthanum and actinium families are arranged separately in two rows at the bottom of the table.
2. Structure of metal atoms
Atoms of most metallic elements have few electrons in their outermost shell (1, 2 or 3e). For example: Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1; Mg : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 ; Al : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
In the same period, atoms of metallic elements have larger atomic radii and smaller nuclear charges than atoms of nonmetallic elements. For example, consider period 2 (atomic radius is expressed in nanometers, nm):
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl
0.157 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.110 0.104 0.099
3. Crystal structure of metals
Most metals under normal conditions exist in crystalline form (except Hg).
In metal crystals, metal atoms and ions are located at the nodes of the crystal lattice. Valence electrons are weakly bound to the nucleus, so they are easily separated from the atoms and move freely in the crystal lattice.
Most metals exist in three common crystal lattice types:
a) Hexagonal crystal lattice
In a crystal, the volume of metal atoms and ions accounts for 74%, the remaining 26% is empty spaces. In this category there are metals: Be, Mg, Zn,...

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